Ernie E. Carter
Texas Registered Professional Engineer No.76369.
Thirty plus years of experience solving complex problems and managing cutting edge technical projects involving grouting, underground engineering, and repair of underground concrete structures. Proven track record of bringing innovative new methods from idea to market maturity and solving field implementation problems.
- Developer of various “special” grouts and grouting methods for U.S. department of energy, 1986 to 1999.
- Development of innovative water shutoff grouting in underground concrete structures.
- Over 15 years jet grouting experience with first time applications.
- Development of many “first of kind” grouting techniques to solve intractable problems in mines, tunnels and dams.
- Evaluation of grouting methods to remediate DNAPL and solvents in deep fractured rock zones.
- Development of environmental remediation plans for over 80 waste sites involving stabilization, treatment and biological treatment of wastes.
- Broad knowledge of construction practices for heavy civil construction.
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Levee wall repair experience.
- Extensive subterranean grouting experience in all manner of underground construction and repair in tunnels, dams, highways, and buildings.
- Grouting consultant to US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.
- Offshore experience with construction from barges, and underwater work.
- Consultant to major construction companies for Texas Department of Transportation emergency repairs.
- Extensive experience with concrete design and admixtures.
- Engineering Consultant to Port of Oakland for evaluation of dock foundation repairs.
- Developer of construction methods for placing horizontal grout barriers under buried tanks and radioactive waste landfills.
- Extensive experience in engineering fractured rock grouting and development of methods for sealing subterranean fractures.
- Excellent computer skills, in hardware and software setup and troubleshooting.
- Extensive experience in remediation treatment of environmental waste in pits, soil, and buried tanks.
- Expert grout materials designer knowledgeable about additives to alter viscosity, thixotropy, set time, gel strength, pipeline fluid friction, exotherm, expansion, fluid loss bleed, conductivity, compressive strength, resiliency, and permeability.
- Extensive knowledge of oil well drilling, fracturing, and grouting technology.
- Experience in design, development, and set-up of machinery for large field-scale continuous blending of radioactive waste with stabilization agents.
- Experience in repairing leakage in large underground concrete structures.
- Experience decontaminating and decommissioning underground piping systems.
- Chemical sales experience for proprietary chemical additives
- Extensive knowledge of heavy construction equipment.
- Health and safety conscious project engineer, with zero personnel injuries on all projects over last 20 years. Human factors engineering and safety training.
- Experience working within DOE facilities in compliance with applicable rules.
- Extensive knowledge of pumps, high pressure jetting, pipelines, cement mixing equipment, pug mills, and fluid properties of high solids slurries.
- Design of nuclear power plant decontamination equipment.
- Special experience in design of equipment to install vertical barriers in situ and application of chemical treatments to deep non-homogeneous formations through well systems.
- Direct experience and knowledge in field application of a broad range of environmental and oil field technology.
- Inventor of the SoilSaw barrier system and EarthSaw containment.
Six years experience as independent contractor and consultant performing environmental and construction projects, technology implementation planning and technical oversight projects for industry and government clients. Developer of custom grouting and stabilization materials and application methods.
Seventeen years with various operating units of the Halliburton Company, including Halliburton Services Subsurface Engineering, Tools Research & Engineering, Halliburton Industrial Services, Halliburton Environmental Technologies, Halliburton NUS, and Brown & Root
Containing The Cold Wars Hot Waste@, ASCE, Civil Engr Magazine, Nov, 1998
In Situ Construction of Containment Barriers Around and Under Buried Waste Sites,@ International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition, 1997
“In Situ Barriers for Isolation of Underground Contaminants,” AIChE,1994.
“In Situ Slurry Wall Formation with the SoilSaw Barrier System,” ASTM 1995.
“Chemical Solidification of Oily Sludges, PetroSafe 89,” 1989.
“Waterproofing of Underground Concrete Structures, G.E.P.S.,” 1988.
“Radio-Controlled Barrier Pig for Pipeline Hydrostatic Testing,” 1984.
“Isolated Multiple Zone Completions From a Floating Vessel,” 1979.
Brownfields remediation of former US Navy Sea Plane base, Morgan’s Point, Bermuda
Carter was contracted with the Government of Bermuda to advise, develop, and review all remedial action plans for cleanup of a 270 acre facility. The project involved asbestos remediation in over 100 buildings, demolition of abandoned and structurally unsafe buildings containing asbestos and lead, Removal of underground tank farms and several tanks of over 1 million gallon capacity each, bioremediation of contaminated soil under the tank farms, removal of several miles of asbestos water pipelines and large hydrocarbon transfer pipe lines, recovery and remediation of jet fuel floating on groundwater, capping of a 10 acre disposal area, bay sediments investigation/remediation and removal of up to 500,000 gallons of floating oil from a deep tidal cave.
Test well installation – GE Oil and Gas- Houston, TX
Carter provided grout design and engineering services to install a 6 foot diameter by 75 foot deep test well for testing of subsea oil well tools. The client elected to use a thin wall casing cemented in place. The site was thought to have some groundwater contamination so the process of cementing the casing was designed to prevent any contaminant migration to lower zones. A high density shrinkage compensated grout was pumped to the bottom of the casing to displace drilling mud upward and provide a strong casing to formation bond. The casing was water pressurized to prevent collapse and weighted to keep it from floating.
Treatability Study – Refinery hydrocarbon sludge – Sun Oil, Philadelphia, PA
Carter was contracted to perform a lab treatability study for a refinery sludge pit containing over 50,000 cubic yards of oil external sludge. Carter oversaw sampling and evaluation of sludge properties as well as developing a reagent blending process suited to this particular material. A treatment process was developed that economically inverted the emulsion and solidified the sludge to a 500 psi solid with a 15 percent net volume reduction. The process also reduced leachability of heavy metals and organic compounds such as benzene below regulatory requirements. Carter provided a detailed report indicating probable net cost per unit volume for materials and equipment costs as well as productivity rates.
Treatability Studies – Chemical Sludge
Carter has performed over 100 formal treatability studies aimed at solidifying sludge and reducing the leaching properties or permeability of the product.
Environmental Remediation Field Operations
Carter developed field techniques to use heavy construction equipment to blend solidification additives into hydrocarbon and chemical sludge at over 100 sites. Many of these jobs also involved construction of a final engineered cap.
Bioremediation Land Farm Management
Carter managed a land farm operation at a former refinery site treating 400,000 cubic yards of petroleum impacted soil.
Carter developed engineering plans and procedures for grouting projects on dams, tunnels, sever lines, and embankment stabilization at over 50 sites.
Chemical Cleaning and High Pressure Jetting
Carter designed chemical and high pressure cleaning treatments for heat exchangers, pipes, and process vessels in chemical and refinery facilities.
Cleaning of Paper mill Outfall Lines
Paper mills typically discharge effluent into a diffuser in the bottom of a river. A client site was in shutdown because of the buildup of sludge on the Inside of the 48 inch line but could not pig the line because it began at the bottom of a subterranean tank and terminated in a long diffuser in the middle of a very large and fast flowing river. The pigging task was also complicated by a 36 inch diameter patch section along the line. Carter designed a system to install a cable and pulley system from the tank at the plant to a barge anchored in the icy river. Carter also designed a bristle pig to winch back and forth through the line to clean it.
Cement Grout Design for Dam
Development of Alternatives to Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas
Carter was selected by DOE through the “Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America” program to develop an environmentally friendly alternative to hydraulic fracturing to enhance production of hydrocarbons and natural gas form shale. Carter had extensive experience with downhole tools, underground engineering, and hydraulic fracturing due to 17 years with Halliburton Company. DOE specified a desire for a completely new approach which would not require vast amounts of water and have reduced potential to cause damage to confining layers separating hydrocarbon zones from water zones. Carter invented a mechanical method of exposing a huge surface area to the wellbore comparable to that of hydraulic fracturing. The method works by reciprocating a tensioned abrasive cable through a curving wellbore to saw a slot into the inside radius of the curve. Computer modeling indicated that these slots could be up to a million square feet in size. Cost analysis indicates that the method should be significantly lower cost than hydraulic fracturing and can be applied in a denser grid so total hydrocarbon recovery is increased by up to 20%. The method is not suitable for work-over of existing wells as the well must be drilled with a slight curve within the target formation. The method is expected to find application in soft shale, coal bed methane, and tar sands areas. The method was subsequently patented and licensed to at least one major oil company to continue development.
Jetting of Uranium Silos – Fernald Nuclear Fuel Site
DOE’s Fernald Site near Cincinnati, Ohio had two underground concrete tanks (silos) of about a million gallons each containing uranium ore. In order to decommission and remove the facility this material was to be removed remotely by a remote controlled water jet sluicing system and solidified into many small concrete storage containers for disposal offsite. The tanks were considered to be very fragile so a gigantic bridge structure was constructed over the tanks to allow access to the existing central opening without collapsing the tank domes. The remote control nozzles were lowered into the tanks while maintaining the required slight negative air pressure on the tanks and sufficient air flow to capture the large quantities of radon gas generated by the uranium ore.
The final foot or two of the material was encrusted and hard so that the heel could not be removed by the water jets. DOE hired Carter to find a solution and keep the project on schedule. Carter re-engineered the existing jetting system and determined that its kinetic energy level could safely tripled. He also designed a ultra-low friction cement and flyash based fluid grout material to blast the tank heel with three times as much power and blend it intimately with the grout. Once blended with sufficient grout, the resulting waste met disposal levels and be co-disposed with the concrete tank walls. Manufacturing, blending and pumping the required 50,000 gallon volume of grout at high pressure within the span of a few hours was beyond the ability of most grouting contractors and very expensive. Carter developed a special mix technique that allowed the grout to be made a ready mix plant and pumped with concrete pumps at high rates and pressures. The grout delivered to the remote control nozzle systems by concrete pumping boom trucks and the nozzles were controlled by the same technicians that performed the water sluicing.
Carter also assisted the contractor in performing treatability studies on the recovered material in an on-site lab and developed a suitable solidification recipe to solve initial problems with the installed mixer system. The solidified tanks were demolished and both the solidified waste casks and the tank rubble were removed and the site restored to a “green fields” condition.
EarthSaw™ subsurface horizontal barrier system
Unlined landfills represent a challenge to remediate because they often contain a huge volume of soil. Some landfills also contain materials that are very dangerous to excavate. Carter developed a concept for constructing an impermeable bottom (and sides) in place under an existing site to isolate such waste. With the aid of its Licensee a small scale test was successfully performed on a ten foot by ten foot cube of soil. The test formed a 1 foot thick grout barrier below and around the perimeter of the cube. The bottom of the cube was sheared and severed by a cable saw allowing the cube to become buoyant in the viscous grout. The grout cured into a maleable engineered natural clay material 12 inches thick under the soil cube. Carter was awarded a government Research and Development contract to further develop this method and create a computer model to help verify its feasibility. The computer model allowed a user to show that the encased area would be structurally sound and predicted the required density of the flexible grout and the bottom profile required to produce a uniform bottom barrier thickness.
Jet Grouting Using a Caisson Drill Crane
A Houston elevated freeway foundation was found to be sinking during construction and TEXDOT determined that the foundation should be strengthened by jet grouting. The Houston based highway contractor desiring to maintain control of their project, wanted to self perform the work but lack the qualifications, knowledge and equipment. The contractor hired Carter to provide the qualifications and was awarded the work. Rather than hiring a jet grouting subcontractor contractor requested Carter come up with a way existing personnel and equipment could largely perform the work. A jet grouting drill unit is highly specialized equipment and the drill pipe caries abrasive fluid grout at 6000 psi. Carter developed a modification of contractors existing 60 ton tracked drill crane to allow it to perform the work. The telescoping Square Kelly was welded solid and a special auger flight bit with extra large jets was fabricated. This bit provided a steady downward pull on the Kelly Bar so that the unit could grout on the way down into the ground instead of while pulling up as in conventional jet grouting. A custom high pressure swivel and grout lines were added at the top of the Kelly Bar. A local grout company provided a surplus Halliburton style dry bulk cement mixer system to blend the slurry on the fly. Halliburton provided and operated a 600 horsepower oil field grout slurry pump, but took no responsibility for any thing else.
The location of this grouting was in the middle of a freeway with 4 lanes of traffic on either side of the work. The grouting pattern was designed to use the swing of the drill house to provide an arc pattern of 170 grout locations approximately 50 feet deep. With extra large jets at 8,000 psi the equipment formed 42 inch diameter columns of soil cement. Due to the jetting parameters the spoils from the process returning to the surface were not fluid but stacked up in a heap and were periodically removed by a front end loader.
The soil improvement work was successfully completed and the drill crane returned to drilling service. Carter also provided a work plan to backfill the undocumented abandoned storm drain that had caused the initial subsidence. The downstream end was plugged and a vertical shaft was drilled from the roadway to the drain. Contractor’s batch plant provided 17 truckloads of flowable fill grout to gravity fill the 36 inch storm drain.
Jet Grouting Research for Buried waste at Idaho National Lab
Carter was contracted to provide technical oversight and advanced grouting materials to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1996, 1997, 2001, 2003 and 2004 to evaluate feasibility of using jet grouting to stabilize buried radioactive waste. Carter also served as a permanent advisory consultant on grouting for other projects at INL.
Beryllium Reactor Block Jet Grouting with Molten Wax
The Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Laboratory contained 15 drilled shafts containing reactor block segments made from the lightweight but toxic metal beryllium which had become a dangerous High Level Transuranic Mixed waste and was interacting with groundwater to produce mobile contamination. DOE determined that the waste should be encapsulated with Waxfix™ molten grout applied by jet grouting. DOE determined that the sticky malleable wax should be able to resist hard radiation, chemical attack, and biological degradation for at least 10,000 years. As a recognized expert in novel forms of jet grouting and the developer of Waxfix™ grouts Carter was contracted to provide technical oversight and engineering design services. Approximately 200 tons of Waxfix™ 125 molten grout was used to fully encapsulate the 15 drilled shafts making the waste and adjacent soil into a waterproof, malleable, and gas tight waste form that would prevent future contact between the beryllium and soil moisture.
Demonstration of Molten Wax Permeation for Hot Cell drain lines
Idaho National Laboratory planned to demolish a radioactive hot cell facility and its drain lines. The drain lines were made of a brittle nickel iron pipe that was known to contain dusty friable deposits of highly radioactive material. Carter proposed permeating these deposits in situ with Waxfix™ Molten wax so that the excavated pipe could be broken into short sections without release of radioactive dust. Carter was contracted to perform a full scale demonstration of this process with non-radioactive materials to simulate the waste. Carter fashioned a transparent pipeline from Borosilicate glass and filled the lower half of its cross section with dusty white hydrated lime and covered it with soil. After blowing hot air through the line Carter gravity filled the line with blue colored molten wax. After cooling the soil was removed the full permeation of the wax into the lime was visually apparent. Carter then prepared a 75 foot long by 4 inch ID underground pipe made of the same Duiron pipe and filled half way full with 6 different dusty and low permeability materials to simulate the range of deposits expected. The line was instrumented with temperature sensors every 10 feet. Carter demonstrated pre-heating the pipe with hot air and filling it with Waxfix 120™ molten wax at 140F. Upon cooling and removal of overburden soil the pipe was snap cut into short sections over a special surface designed to show any dust dispersal. All the sections snapped cleanly without generating visible dust. Even sections broken with a hammer were completely dust free. The method was then applied to the real hot cell without incident and was judged completely effective.
Molten Wax grout for Hanford Caissons
White Bluff Dam Jet Grouting Design
Grouting of Infiltration Trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Carter was contracted as chief grouting engineer for a major government contractor to develop a colloidal cement/flyash grout design, injection equipment, and a grouting methodology to apply cement based pressure grouting to a series of infiltration trenches that the lab had used to dispose of low level radioactive liquid waste. Carter designed a special grouting pipe that could be driven into the ground and then allow grout to be independently injected into every foot of length of the pipe with a check valve to prevent flow back. Carter also developed a precise grout formulation with the government specified materials that had the desired rheological properties, set time, and final strength. These special grouting pipes were driven into the deeply buried infiltration trenches and surrounding soils. The cementitious grout was used within the gravel filled trenches and a two component polyacrylamide grout was used to grout fractures in the surrounding soil.
In –Situ TRU Waste Delineation And Removal ReSEARCH
Carter performed research for the US Department of Energy to develop a new means of locating buried transuranic waste and a means of removal of the waste in a safe manner without spreading contamination. These wastes were buried at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Carter reviewed the records for the site from public an private sources and developed an innovative means of recovering the wastes without spreading contamination. The technique involved driving closed end pipes with electric heaters into the soil and slowly heating the soil around the waste to an average temperature above the melting point of the wax, but well below the boiling point of water. The heated soil was then treated in place with Waxfix™ molten wax which filled all the voids and saturated the waste and heated soil with the waterproof wax. Upon cooling the sticky wax allowed the waste to be safely excavated without the potential for airborne dispersion of contaminated particles. The wax treated material may then be compressed into a shielded container for ultimate disposal.
- Hot Demonstration of Jet grouting of Acid Waste pit at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1997 I helped plan and implement a successful field demonstration of jet grouting in a radioactive environment. I provided materials and field oversight for the work under contract to the DOE lab. Client was Jim Jessmore 208-526-7558
- Development of a life cycle cost estimate for jet grouting in radioactive trenches at INEEL, In 2002 I helped INEEL develop a life cycle cost estimate for application of this process to a 14 acre area. Client was Tom Bechtold with Bechtel BWXT Idaho, 208-526-7738
- Engineering and health and safety planning for demonstration of construction of a containment barrier under the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion plant Uranium Burial Grounds. 2002. Phase II of this project is currently un-funded. Client was National Energy Technology Laboratory, Technical contact was David Lang,412-386-4881
- Current Research Project for delineation and removal of TRU waste from pits 619-10 and 618-11 at Hanford. 2003, Tom Anderson, 301-903-7295
The following projects were performed by Carter before formation of Carter Technologies
- Radiation Safety Officer for Halliburton Environmental Technologies Co, 1990- 1991. I helped plan operations for disposal of NORM and solidification of large volumes of slightly radioactive wastewater for an industrial client in New Jersey. Paul Pettit, 513-648-4960
- Preliminary design of Systems for retrieval and solidification of Rocky Flats solar pond wastes, 1990. In this project we were to reprocess sludge and contaminated water. Paul Pettit, 513-648-4960
- White Oak Creek jet grouting of radioactive sediment at ORNL, 1986 In this project I helped plan a procedure to solidify contaminated sediment. The project was successfully completed. Paul Pettit, 513-648-4960
- Design of decontamination cleaning system for contaminated Steam generators at Ginnay station Nuclear Power plant, 1982 I examined the contaminated systems and designed the barrier and safety hardware and helped plan procedures. The project implementation was canceled. Paul Pettit, 513-648-4960
- Preliminary design of a high volume mixing and pumping system to solidify radioactive liquid nitrate waste and convert it to saltstone. Paul Pettit, 513-648-4960
Ernie E. Carter Resume below:
Technology available for license.
Carter Technologies Co.
9702 Garden Row Drive
Sugar Land, TX 77498
Phone (281) 495-2603